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A Scientist and the Web

 

Should I publish Open Access?

In a reply to the last post Pablo (a leader of the Quixote project) asks:

Pablo Echenique says:

December 10, 2010 at 5:12 pm  (Edit)

I have another question for you, Peter. I have thought about emailing you but maybe this is a better place:

I would like that all my publications go to open access journals, like the PLoS ones… but… there are so few! and many of them are low impact factor, which may make more difficult my future career and, specially, that of my youngest collaborators, who still do not have a permanent position.

What are your views on this?

Thank you.

I think millions of young people are asking this and it’s a very difficult question. As you read this remember I am 0105 years old and so I cannot give completely objective advice. In this area I do not force my ideas on my coworkers. Left to myself I will publish in Open Access – with other authors I am fairly quiet.

Firstly, why publish? There are a number of possible reasons:

  • To record one’s work and to get priority
  • To communicate your work to others
  • To offer your work for peer-review (whether formal or not)
  • To receive merit from the community (e.g. “citations”)
  • To preserve your work for posterity
  • And to fulfil various obligations (e.g. to funders)

     

    In some cases (6) gives you no choice. Wellcome, NIH and many research councils require Open Access publishing. If you don’t like it, you don’t have to take their funding. I’m guessing that (5) is not at the top of young people’s lists – after all young people are immortal. And almost every publication satisfies (1) although I have published in a journal (Internet Journal of Chemistry) and I think the papers are lost.

     

    So it comes down to 2, 3, 4

     

    Let’s first dispose of peer-review. PR is given for free by academics and others. There is no evidence that Closed Access journals have better peer-review than Open Access or vice versa. (Yes, the ludicrous PRISM of Closed Access publishers lambasted Open Access as “junk science” but no honest Close Access publisher will take that view). Your fees (whether author-side or reader-side go to the management of PR, not PR itself).

     

    So the decision rests on “do you want people to read your work” and “do you wish people to rank your work”.

     

    It’s obvious that if an article is Open Access there are more people who can potentially read it. Many people are put off by the hassle of reading Closed Access (e.g. if you have to go through some paywall). And many people are put off by the actual cost. 30USD for 48 hours rent is very high. Moreover if you do not know what is in the paper before you read it you may decide not to read it. After all even 10 seconds glance at a paper can tell you it’s of no relevance and it still costs 30 USD. (or more). How many times have you (a fortunate university reader) glanced at a paper for 10 seconds and then moved on?

     

    However in the information-saturated world you can’t read everything and traditionally journals have been a way of bundling content into packets for particular readers. In the electronic and multidisciplinary world this is no longer necessary (although it’s still common). So journals have become branding labels. They are a simplistic way of saying “this paper is better than that paper”. It’s a bit like Gramophone records used to be. Or book publishers. A very blunt approach, but it had its supporters. So we’ve moved to a situations where scientists follow brands rather than make rational decisions. The university system reinforces this. People get promoted if they have a NatSci paper as opposed to PLoS. And the publishing houses can make a lot of money out of promoting brands. Bibliometrics shows that one publishing house not far from Kings Cross has done exceptionally in promoting its brand for all sorts of disciplines. Does this mean that their papers are better, or simply that their marketeers are better? Why do people buy one fragrance as opposed to another? Or any other fashion accessory? It’s not the raw value of the item – it’s the perception that has been built up.

     

    So in my opinion the scientific publishing market is based on perception rather than value. But what about citations? Well citations are a very very blunt tool. They come after the fact, they often don’t recognize new or controversial value, they are subject-biased and they can be heavily slanted to – say – methods. Worse, the Impact Factor (how many academics voted to introduce impact factors?) is an average over a journal. It flattens and distorts the individual.

     

    All this is known, but not widely enough.

     

    This will change. The first change will be that we become good at discovering individual papers and measuring their values. Journals become irrelevant if (but only if) the academic world wakes up and stops kowtowing to this outofdate concept of a journal. In which case *where* you publish should not matter as far as readership is concerned, except that if it’s Open Access it will have more readers. However the CA publishers will react against this and I would predict a greater introduction of restrictive contracts with libraries. For example not allowing access to “journal X” unless you also buy Y. Or increasing charges because more people read the material (I have heard this is starting to come it. Resist it with your life). We now see greater pressure on library budgets.

     

    We are in a prisoner’s dilemma. It’s clear that universal Open Access is superior for humanity in general (except for shareholders of some companies who will start to miss out). But there is no easy smooth path there. Change puts greater financial pressure on all players.

     

    In the best of all possible worlds I’d like to see the role of publishers diminish sharply and academia reclaim what it produces and owns. I’m not sanguine. Vice Chancellors and Principals fight against each other. They could, if they wished, redesign the system so money was more efficiently spent and scholarship was published more widely. But I doubt they will. So I predict continuing mess, fewer scientists reading publications, even fewer of the general public reading them.

     

    In this broken world, Pablo, I don’t know what should be done. I think there’s a chance of a grass-roots Open revolution. Where people move away from Closed access. Many other sectors are becoming Open – academia may be seen as an unacceptable anachronism. When students (in the UK) riot about the cost of fees, why shouldn’t they riot against expensive publications. (Lecturers cannot copy their own papers for students to use without paying fees).

     

    The positive force is that people’s work will become known by means other than their publications. For informal recognition you will become known for Quixote – and hopefully widely. I communicate to more people through this blog than through papers. It doesn’t work for everyone, but it’s an increasing trend.

     

The real problem is (4). The authors of the Blue Obelisk software are widely known and highly regarded. si monumentum requiris, circumspice. Christopher Wren is known for his cathderals, not his academic publications. Joe Townsend’s Chem4Word has had 250,000 downloads. But that doesn’t even equal 1 citation in the sad world of academia.

 

I think and hope that aspiring young scientists will buck the system and publish where and how they feel fit. I hope, with less conviction, that academia will value that.


 

12 Responses to “Should I publish Open Access?”

  1. If only we had published the Blue Obelisk paper in an OA journal… that would have helped the journal impact factor a bit… oh wait, we should not care about that :)

    Readers should realize that the Blue Obelisk paper citations easily beats the impact factor of Nature and Science combined. Unfortunately, that is not taken into account either, just like download statistics. It only matters if your software is donwloaded once; to your referee’s desktop.

  2. Jan Jensen says:

    “I would like that all my publications go to open access journals, like the PLoS ones… but… there are so few!”

    But PLoS ONE takes paper on any subject, don’t they? And the impact factor is a respectable 4.351.

    “I think there’s a chance of a grass-roots Open revolution.”
    How about the Open Science unjournal: http://molecularmodelingbasics.blogspot.com/2010/11/open-science-unjournal.html

  3. Thank you Peter for your answer… I definitely agree on everything you say.

    The most important point for me, and I am not sure in which of your reasons-for-publishing it fits, is “to get the next fellowship and finally to get tenure” or, for people that already has a permanent position, “to get the next grant”. Sadly, here in Spain, I am not sure what the situation in the rest of the world is, the different committees that give people positions and grants do look to the IF of the journals you have published in, and many times they even say it explicitly in the call.

    As Jan says, PLoS ONE is an option and I am considering the possibility of sending ALL my papers to it, at least all the papers in which I have a large part of the final decision. The problem is that I know about several cases in which you do not get the position, the fellowship or the grant with a bunch of papers in high-impact-factor journals, say, 4.351; they ask for papers in “very high IF” journals, which in physics can mean, say, Physical Review Letters, PNAS, Nature Physics, Nature or Science.

    I mean that, if you have a work which can make it to Nature, and you publish it in PLoS ONE, maybe you are signing your exit from the academic track to tenure.

  4. Jan Jensen says:

    I would say that if you have a paper you think has a chance to be published in Physical Review Letters, PNAS, Nature Physics, Nature or Science, then by all means give it a shot. I would guess that a Nature or Science paper certainly would make a big difference in a tenure decision or grant application, though I am not so sure how big a difference a PNAS publication really makes. However, I know of very, very few scientists that have “a bunch of papers” in journals like that, and I know very many established scientists that have none.

    So isn’t the question really whether one is hurting ones career by publishing between 99 and 100 % of ones papers in open access journals? And I think the answer basically boils down whether anyone in the tenure or grant committee has published in the same journal, or has a respected colleague who has.

    Another major factor currently is whether the journal is indexed in Science Citation Index, thereby contributing to your total number of citations and h-index (though sites like scholar.google.com are also getting very good a tracking citations).

    PLoS ONE is certainly becoming a more and more viable option from that point of view.

  5. I totally agree with you, Jan. “Prestige” or “perceived prestige” is one of the key elements in this whole undesirable situation… most established academics do not trust the new ways of publishing and maybe that weighs more than the IF.

    I think that I will take the shot and aim for OA journals all the time and, if I ever have something remotely publishable in Nature, I will surrender to the weakness of the system for one time ;)

  6. [...] This post was mentioned on Twitter by Doerte, Birgit Schmidt. Birgit Schmidt said: Should I publish open access? A response by Peter Murray-Rust to young and ambitious scientists http://bit.ly/h9XGoO #openacccess [...]

  7. You are not really 105 years old, are you?

    I think that many people, me included, are not in science for the prestige. I am quite happy to work in relative obscurity. I am pleased when my work is useful to others. But I would rather not have my face in the front page of magazines. I am sure I am not alone? Am I? At some point, when you have seen your name in print sufficiently often, you know that you have left a trace, however small, in the history of science. I think it is quite satisfying already.

    So, why do we worry so much about prestige?

    The problem is that even if you have tenure, you might like to have some job mobility or be able to find a job should your department close in 10 years. In any case, you would like to be “employable” in the future. This is, obviously, a very acute concern for young researchers. So, no matter how forward thinking you are, assuming you are not 105 years old, it is in your interest to do work that is well regarded (if not well read). And, frankly, this means paying your dues to the system.

    It wouldn’t be so bad if there were plenty of jobs. However, throughout most of the world, there is a glut of scientists. This puts intense pressure on those who would be tempted to try reject the old systems. While we talk at length about “academic freedom”, the truth is a little bit more nuanced.

    If we really want to see more innovation in research, we’ll have to improve the job prospects. It is that simple.

    As for publishing everything in PLoS One. That is fine if your community is already doing it. However, research is a social phenomenon. PLoS is still overwhelmingly concerned with biology and medicine. I see very little effort to extend their scope to other disciplines such as Mathematics or Computer Science.

  8. Chris Rusbridge says:

    Nice article, Peter. I looked up the Internet Journal of Chemistry via Google, and we get http://hackberry.trinity.edu/IJC/. It seems to have some “about” pages but no content. I then looked that URI up on the Wayback Machine, and we find that a couple of pages were collected in 2002. It had a link for content, but when I explored it, I find that it is a page asking me to register! That page of course blocked the Internet Archive’s robots from exploring further. So in this case it does appear that your paper has been lost *because of* the restrictive approach of the journal!

  9. [...] Should I publish Open Access? We are in a prisoner’s dilemma. It’s clear that universal Open Access is superior for humanity in general (except for shareholders of some companies who will start to miss out). But there is no easy smooth path there. Change puts greater financial pressure on all players. [...]

  10. Why not just publish in your preferred journal and self-archive the peer-reviewed final draft (“Green OA”)?

  11. [...] Harnad has commented on the discussion on publishing Open Access: Stevan Harnad says: December 20, 2010 at 11:15 am  (Edit) Why not just publish in your preferred journal and self-archive the peer-reviewed final [...]

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